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Korean J Art Hist > Volume 306; 2020 > Article
Korean Journal of Art History 2020;306:99-135.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31065/ahak.306.306.202006.004    Published online June 30, 2020.
조선후기 관음삼존상 협시에 나타나는 위태천 관련 도상 분석
김민지
이화여자대학교대학원
Skanda-Karttikeya in Avalokitesvara Triad in Late Joseon
Minji Kim
Ewha Womans University
Correspondence:  Minji Kim,
Received: 29 February 2020   • Revised: 1 April 2020   • Accepted: 24 May 2020
Abstract
The eight examples of Avalokitesvara Triad that survive from late Joseon are products of their time, representing the currents of the Buddhism and of the Buddhist sculptures in Joseon of the 17th and 18th centuries. However, as they have received little scholarly attention, the circumstances under which they were made, and their significance and standing in the history of Buddhist sculpture in Korea have not been understood in depth. This study focuses on the mixed representation of Skanda-Karttikeya in Avalokitesvara Triad and analyzes the meaning and patterns of its appearance. Traditionally, the Avalokitesvara Triad were understood to be of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara attended by the Dragon King and Sudhana, but the iconography of Skanda-Karttikeya can be recognized in some examples. The reasons for the inclusion of this iconography can be found on the prints of Water-Moon Avalokitesvara and Avalokitesvara Dharani included in the narrative paintings for the Buljeongsimdharani-gyeong, a scripture mass-produced in Joseon, where Skanda-Karttikeya appears as an important deity along with Avalokitesvara, Sudhana, and the Dragon King. As this new iconography of WaterMoon Avalokitesvara was widely distributed, the late Joseon sculptures of the Avalokitesvara Triad began to absorb Skanda-Karttikeya among them. As only two attendants could be present in a triad, different iconographies were merged into one. Whereas the Water-Moon Avalokitesvara of Goryeo was based on the “The Universal Gateway of the Bodhisattva Perceiver of the World’s Sounds” chapter of the Lotus Sutra, and the “Entering the Dharma Realm” chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra, the Avalokitesvara Triad of late Joseon was a new type of Water-Moon Avalokitesvara, representing esoteric Buddhism and Dharani. The reception and diffusion of the new iconography that includes Skanda-Karttikeya images via prints, paintings, and sculptures demonstrate how iconographies were shared between different materials and influenced each other. The late Joseon Water-Moon Avalokitesvara that became popular through prints related to the practice of Dharani, and the new mixed iconography of Avalokitesvara Triad made to express it in sculpture show how the desires of the contemporary people were reflected in religious sculptures. Images of Dharmapala as warrior-types were incorporated as people needed protection from danger, and they also stand as witness to the earnest desires of the people who wanted to guard something precious from harm.
Key Words: Late Joseon, Avalokitesvara Triad, Water-Moon Avalokitesvara, Skanda-Karttikeya, Dharmapala, Buljeongsimdharani-gyeong, Avalokitesvara Dharani
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